Culture: Types Of Culture
The concept of culture is very complicated and there are many types of culture. “Culture” has many meanings but is most commonly used in three ways.
- Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture.
- An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior.
- The outlook, attitudes, values, morals, goals, and customs shared by a society.
What do you mean by Culture?
- Culture in broad terms refers to the way of life of groups of people. So a cultural identity is therefore seen in people’s writing, religion, music, clothes, cooking and in their communal engagements.You may like: Healing Music-The Kinnor
What is the best definition of culture
Most broadly, ‘culture’ includes all human phenomena which are not purely results of human genetics. The discipline which investigates cultures is called anthropology. Although many other disciplines play a part.
Anthropologists study how culture shapes people and their lives. However, cultures constantly change as people move and communicate with new groups of people.
For example, immigrants who move from one place to another keep their customs and traditions. So they bring pieces of their culture to a new place. Hence, others experience a different culture.
- It is the system of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people.
- Culture is communication because communication is culture.
- In its broadest sense is cultivated behavior. That is the totality of a person’s learned, accumulated experience which they transmit socially. Or more briefly, behavior through social learning.
- A culture is a way of life of a group of people. Behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept generally without thinking about them. And pass them along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.
- It is the sum of total of the behaviour a group of people learn. So it generally creates the tradition of that people and are transmits it from generation to generation.
- Culture is a collective programming of the mind. Hence, distinguishes members of one group or category of people from another.
Examples of cultures
Cultures are what makes countries unique. Each country has different cultural activities and cultural rituals. Culture includes material goods, the things the people use and produce. It is also beliefs and values of the people. And the ways they think about and understand the world and their own lives.
Different countries have different types of culture. For example, some older Japanese people wear kimonos, arrange flowers in vases, and have tea ceremonies. But some countries oppose some things in their culture. like discrimination or religion.
Regional or non-regional cultures
Culture can also vary within a region, society or sub group. A workplace may have a specific culture that sets it apart from similar workplaces. One region of a country may have a different culture than the rest of the country. For example, in a large country like China or Canada a region may have a distinctive way of talking. Different types of music, and different types of dances.
A group who acts or speaks differently may be said to be, or have, a subculture.
Companies or other organizations (groups of people) can have a separate culture. Japanese manufacturing companies often have a different culture to Western companies. The workday starts with exercise, and the workers are very loyal to the company.
High-technology companies often have a different culture than other companies. Software and computer companies sometimes allow employees to play games during the workday. Or take time off work to relax, because these companies believe that this will help the workers to think better.
Types of cultures
Social scientists classify societies into two fundamentally general cultural category.
- Material culture. Material culture is physical things that are created by a society.
- non-material culture, or the intangible things produced by a culture
What are the 2 types of culture?
In America, we have a strong material culture based on production of certain items, like cars. America is proud of its car culture. We make cars and we drive cars. Use cars as symbols of our place in society, wealth, or feelings about the environment.
Cars, plus the other things that we physically create as Americans, define our material culture. Now, material culture does not mean that it is an object that is bought and sold. It can also be something we all make. For instance, macaroni art is a common thing we all did as children. It is something that is common enough to unite us and therefore part of our material culture.
These are the parts of culture you cannot touch, feel, taste, or hold. Common examples include social roles, ethics, beliefs, or even language. As a culture, Americans believe in equality. But you cannot hold equality, or make it out of macaroni noodles. Equality is something that does not actually exist. It is an idea that a culture produces about the treatment of people. This is non-material culture, and it is just as big of an influence on our lives as material culture is.
These basic categories defines a society but can be further simplified into smaller cultural groups based on certain cultural elements.
Elements of Culture
The total culture of any specific society is composed of several elements, or parts. Such as clothing, arts, language, history and origins. Just to name a few.
Social organization is an important element of culture. This is the way that society divides people. In most cultures, there is a ruler who is more powerful than the average person. Meanwhile other cultures may have several levels of organization based on sex, age, occupation, or even reputation. It defines how the society treats the relationships between different members of that culture.
What are 4 types of organizational culture?
There are four types of organizational culture. According to Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor: Clan, Adhocracy, Market, and Hierarchy.
- Clan oriented cultures are family-like, with a focus on mentoring, nurturing, and “doing things together.”
- Adhocracy oriented cultures are dynamic and entrepreneurial. Because of a strong focus on risk-taking, innovation, and “doing things first.”
- Market oriented cultures want results. They focus on competition, achievement, and “getting the job done.”
- Hierarchy cultures focus on efficiency, stability and doing things right. As well as structure and control.
There’s no right or wrong organizational culture. Because each culture promotes some forms of behavior, and inhibit others. A culture may suit rapid and repeated change. While others will favor slow incremental development of the institution.
More practical examples
Quinn and Cameron, associate Hierarchy and Market to a principal focus on stability. Meanwhile, Clan and Adhocracy are flexible and adaptable. So a Hierarchy culture based on control leads mainly to incremental change. whereas a focus on Adhocracy typically leads to breakthrough change.
The right culture is one that closely fits the direction and strategy of it’s society. But confronts its own issues and the challenges.
some cultures of the world include:
- western culture
- Eastern culture
- latin culture
- Middle Eastern cultureEach of these cultures have several sub cultures like:
- DIY culture
- high culture
- children culture etc
What culture do you want for your organization and how might you move towards it in the future?